Peripheral nervous system topics
This chapter covers issues in the peripheral nervous system that are in progress or are contradictory in literature. Advances have been made in the development of the nervous system due to genetic research. Neural crest but also placodes and segmentation, particularly of the dorsal root ganglion, are covered. Attention is given to the cytology and function of the pseudo-unipolar cells and the relationship of dorsal root fibers to specific muscles. The supporting cells, like Schwann, satellite and mast, are treated for their function, especially at the nodal area. Attention is paid to nerve fiber diameters and the action potential velocity, which makes it possible to infer function of several nerves by establishing solely the fiber diameter. Issues concerning the plexus are discussed, especially where the autonomic and somatic systems meet each other. Most plexuses are covered, except the brachial plexus which is covered in another chapter. Attention is given to the cervical and lumbo-sacral plexuses, the last one in relation to the uropoetic system and the spinal nucleus of Onuf. Proprioception deals with the topics on non-muscular innervation with special attention towards spinal cord meninges, bursae, and the intervertebral disc. Proprioception of muscles relates to free nerve endings, Golgi-tendon organs, muscle spindles, muscle spindle endplates, and palisade endings. The end of the chapter covers engineering techniques applied in the peripheral nervous system.