The water relations and irrigation requirement of avocado (Persea americana Mill.): a review
The results of research on the water relations and irrigation need of avocado are collated and reviewed in an attempt to link fundamental studies on crop physiology to irrigation practices. Background information is given on the centre of origin (Mexico and Central America) and the three distinct ecological areas where avocados are grown commercially: (1) Cool, semi-arid climates with winter-dominant rainfall (e.g. Southern California, Chile, Israel); (2) Humid, subtropical climates with summer-dominant rainfall (e.g. eastern Australia, Mexico, South Africa); and (3) Tropical or semi-tropical climates also with summer-dominant rainfall (e.g. Brazil, Florida and Indonesia). Most of the research reported has been done in Australia, California, Israel and South Africa. There are three ecological races that are given varietal status within the species: Persea americana var. drymifolia (Mexican race), P. americana var. guatemalensis (Guatemalan race) and P. americana var. americana (Antillean, West Indian or Lowland race). Interracial crossing has taken place. This paper summarises the effects of water deficits on the development processes of the crop and then reviews plantâwater relations, crop water requirements, water productivity and irrigation systems. Shoot growth in mature trees is synchronised into flushes. Flower initiation occurs in the autumn, with flowering in late winter and spring. Flowers form on the ends of the branches. A large heavily flowering tree may have over a million flowers, but only produce 200â300 fruits. Fruit load adjustment occurs by shedding during the first three to four weeks after fruit set and again in early summer. Water deficits during critical stages of fruit ontogeny have been linked to fruit disorders such as ring-neck. Reproductive growth is very resistant to water stress (compared with vegetative growth). Avocado is conventionally considered to be shallow rooted, although roots extend to depths greater than 1.5 m. The majority of feeder roots are found in the top 0.60 m of soil and root extension can continue throughout the year. Leaves develop a waxy cuticle on both surfaces, which is interrupted by stomata on the abaxial surface (350â510 mmâ2), many of which are blocked by wax. Stomata are also present on the sepals and petals at low densities (and on young fruit). During flowering, the canopy surface area available for water loss is considerably increased. Stomatal closure is an early indicator of water stress, which together with associated changes in leaf anatomy, restricts CO2 diffusion. There have only been a few attempts to measure the actual water use of avocado trees. In Mediterranean-type climates, peak rates of water use (in summer) appear to be between 3 and 5 mm dâ1. For mature trees, the crop coefficient (K c) is usually within the range 0.4â0.6. The best estimate of water productivity is between 1 and 2 kg fruit mâ3. Soil flooding and the resultant reduction in oxygen level can damage roots even in the absence of root rot. Avocado is particularly sensitive to salinity, notably that caused by chloride ions. Rootstocks vary in their sensitivity. Both drip and under-tree microsprinklers have been/are successfully used to irrigate avocado trees. Mulching of young trees is a recommended water conservation measure and has other benefits. A large proportion of the research reviewed has been published in the âgreyâ literature as conference papers and annual reports. Sometimes, this is at the expense of reporting the science on which the recommendations are based in peer-reviewed papers. The pressures on irrigators to improve water productivity are considered.