BioLiP: a semi-manually curated database for biologically relevant ligand–protein interactions
BioLiP (http://zhanglab.ccmb.med.umich.edu/BioLiP/) is a semi-manually curated database for biologically relevant ligand–protein interactions. Establishing interactions between protein and biologically relevant ligands is an important step toward understanding the protein functions. Most ligand-binding sites prediction methods use the protein structures from the Protein Data Bank (PDB) as templates. However, not all ligands present in the PDB are biologically relevant, as small molecules are often used as additives for solving the protein structures. To facilitate template-based ligand–protein docking, virtual ligand screening and protein function annotations, we develop a hierarchical procedure for assessing the biological relevance of ligands present in the PDB structures, which involves a four-step biological feature filtering followed by careful manual verifications. This procedure is used for BioLiP construction. Each entry in BioLiP contains annotations on: ligand-binding residues, ligand-binding affinity, catalytic sites, Enzyme Commission numbers, Gene Ontology terms and cross-links to the other databases. In addition, to facilitate the use of BioLiP for function annotation of uncharacterized proteins, a new consensus-based algorithm COACH is developed to predict ligand-binding sites from protein sequence or using 3D structure. The BioLiP database is updated weekly and the current release contains 204 223 entries.