Epidemiology and Outcomes of In-Hospital Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in the United States, 2000-2009.
AIM: To examine temporal trends in the epidemiology and outcomes of in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) recipients at a population level. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of temporal trends in CPR incidence, survival to discharge, discharge disposition, hospital length of stay, and cost of hospitalization for CPR recipients (age ≥18years) captured in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2000-9) in the United States. RESULTS: Between years 2000-9, CPR incidence increased by 33.7%, from 1 case per 453 to 1 case per 339 hospitalized patients (annual percentage increase: 4.3%, 95% CI: 3.4%-5.2%, p<0.001). Compared to CPR recipients in years 2000-1, those in 2008-9 were more often younger (age <65 years: 33.4% vs. 40.0%), non-white (29.3% vs. 36.4%), and higher comorbidity scores (score ≥4: 22.2% vs. 27.1%) (all p<0.001). Rates of neurologic compromise, mechanical ventilator, and feeding tube use increased by 37.7%, 28.2%, and 58.5%, respectively (all p<0.001). Adjusted rate of survival to discharge increased by 41.3% (20.6% to 29.1%, p<0.001). Compared to survivors in 2000, those discharged in 2009 were more often discharged to hospice (0.4% vs. 7.1%, p<0.001); a 35% decrease in discharge to home was noted (36.4% vs. 23.8% p<0.001). Mean cost of hospitalization per day increased for both survivors ($2742 to $3462, p=0.006) and decedents ($3159 to $4212, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The rate of in-hospital CPR in the U.S. increased, and CPR recipients have become younger and sicker over time. Survival to discharge has improved by 41.3%. Functional outcomes after in-hospital CPR appear to have worsened, with considerable clinical and economic implications. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.