Multifaceted Effects of ATP on Cardiolipin-Bound Cytochrome c
Using a collection of dye-labeled cytochrome c (cyt c) variants, we identify transformations of the heterogeneous cardiolipin (CL)-bound cyt c ensemble with added ATP. Distributions of dye-to-heme distances P(r) from time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer show that ATP decreases the population of largely unfolded cyt c conformers, but its effects are distinct from those of a simple salt. The high peroxidase activity of CL-bound cyt c with added ATP suggests binding interactions that favor protein structures with the open heme pocket. Although ATP weakens cyt c?CL binding interactions, it also boosts the apoptosis-relevant peroxidase activity of CL-bound cyt c.