Effects of cholesterol on pore formation in lipid bilayers induced by human islet amyloid polypeptide fragments: A coarse-grained molecular dynamics study
Disruption of the cellular membrane by the amyloidogenic peptide, islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), has been considered as one of the mechanisms of β-cell death during type 2 diabetes. The N-terminal region (residues 1–19) of the human version of IAPP is suggested to be primarily responsible for the membrane-disrupting effect of the full-length hIAPP peptide. However, the detailed assembly mode of hIAPP1–19 with membrane remains unclear. To gain insight into the interactions of hIAPP1–19 oligomer with the model membrane, we have employed coarse-grained molecular dynamics self-assembly simulations to study the aggregation of hIAPP1–19 fragments in the binary lipid made of zwitterionic dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and anionic dipalmitoylphosphatidylserine (DPPS) in the presence and absence of different levels of cholesterol content. The membrane-destabilizing effect of hIAPP1–19 is found to be modulated by the presence of cholesterol. In the absence of cholesterol, hIAPP1–19 aggregates prefer to locate inside the bilayer, forming pore-like assemblies. While in the presence of cholesterol molecules, the lipid bilayer becomes more ordered and stiff, and the hIAPP1–19 aggregates are dominantly positioned at the bilayer-water interface. The action of cholesterol may suggest a possible way to maintain the membrane integrity by small molecule interference.