Inositol stereoisomers stabilize an oligomeric aggregate of Alzheimer amyloid beta peptide and inhibit abeta -induced toxicity.
Inositol has 8 stereoisomers, four of which are physiologically active. myo-Inositol is the most abundant isomer in the brain and more recently shown that epi- and scyllo-inositol are also present. myo-Inositol complexes with Abeta42 in vitro to form a small stable micelle. The ability of inositol stereoisomers to interact with and stabilize small Abeta complexes was addressed. Circular dichroism spectroscopy demonstrated that epi- and scyllo- but not chiro-inositol were able to induce a structural transition from random to beta-structure in Abeta42. Alternatively, none of the stereoisomers were able to induce a structural transition in Abeta40. Electron microscopy demonstrated that inositol stabilizes small aggregates of Abeta42. We demonstrate that inositol-Abeta interactions result in a complex that is non-toxic to nerve growth factor-differentiated PC-12 cells and primary human neuronal cultures. The attenuation of toxicity is the result of Abeta-inositol interaction, as inositol uptake inhibitors had no effect on neuronal survival. The use of inositol stereoisomers allowed us to elucidate an important structure-activity relationship between Abeta and inositol. Inositol stereoisomers are naturally occurring molecules that readily cross the blood-brain barrier and may represent a viable treatment for AD through the complexation of Abeta and attenuation of Abeta neurotoxic effects.