Bootstrap percolation on a Bethe lattice
A new percolation problem is posed which can exhibit a first-order transition. In bootstrap percolation, sites on an empty lattice are first randomly occupied, and then all occupied sites with less than a given number m of occupied neighbours are successively removed until a stable configuration is reached. On any lattice for sufficiently large m, the ensuing clusters can only be infinite. On a Bethe lattice for m>or=3, the fraction of the lattice occupied by infinite clusters discontinuously jumps from zero at the percolation threshold. From an analysis of stable and metastable ground states of the dilute Blume-Capel model (1966), it is concluded that effects like bootstrap percolation may occur in some real magnets.