inv(16)/t(16;16) acute myeloid leukemia with non–type A CBFB-MYH11 fusions associate with distinct clinical and genetic features and lack KIT mutations
The inv(16)(p13q22)/t(16;16)(p13;q22) in acute myeloid leukemia results in multiple CBFB-MYH11 fusion transcripts, with type A being most frequent. The biologic and prognostic implications of different fusions are unclear. We analyzed CBFB-MYH11 fusion types in 208 inv(16)/t(16;16) patients with de novo disease, and compared clinical and cytogenetic features and the KIT mutation status between type A (n = 182; 87%) and non–type A (n = 26; 13%) patients. At diagnosis, non–type A patients had lower white blood counts (P = .007), and more often trisomies of chromosomes 8 (P = .01) and 21 (P < .001) and less often trisomy 22 (P = .02). No patient with non–type A fusion carried a KIT mutation, whereas 27% of type A patients did (P = .002). Among the latter, KIT mutations conferred adverse prognosis; clinical outcomes of non–type A and type A patients with wild-type KIT were similar. We also derived a fusion-type–associated global gene-expression profile. Gene Ontology analysis of the differentially expressed genes revealed—among others—an enrichment of up-regulated genes involved in activation of caspase activity, cell differentiation and cell cycle control in non–type A patients. We conclude that non–type A fusions associate with distinctclinical and genetic features, including lack of KIT mutations, and a unique gene-expression profile.