Epstein–Barr virus- and human herpesvirus 8-associated primary cutaneous plasmablastic lymphoma in the setting of renal transplantation
Background: Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a recently recognized entity most often reported in the oral cavity, mainly in the setting of underlying human immunodeficiency viral infection whereby a role for Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) and more recently human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) has been described. Although EBV has been implicated in a variety of lymphoproliferative lesions, until recently HHV8 has only been associated with primary effusion lymphoma, multicentric Castleman's disease, and Kaposi's sarcoma. We describe a case of PBL occurring in the setting of renal transplantation. Methods: We encountered a case of PBL occurring in the setting of renal transplantation. We characterized the tumor by routine immunohistochemistry and evaluated for the presence of immunoglobulin light chain restriction and EBV RNA by in situ hybridization. We assessed for the presence of HHV8 RNA by reverse transcriptase in situ hybridization. Results: The tumor showed a histomorphology compatible with a PBL. In addition, there was strong RNA expression in the neoplastic cells for EBER-1, EBER-2, and HHV8. Conclusion: This case suggests a possible role of both viruses in the pathogenesis of PBL in sites other than the oral cavity and expands the spectrum of post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disease to include PBL.