KSHV/HHV8-associated primary cutaneous plasmablastic lymphoma in a patient with Castleman’s disease and Kaposi’s sarcoma
We report a unique case of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)/human herpesvirus (HHV)8-associated lymphoma in a 56-year-old man with a history of acquired immune deficiency syndrome, Castleman’s disease, KS, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Three months following the diagnosis of KS affecting a left cervical lymph node and Castleman’s disease with bone marrow involvement, he presented with a subcutaneous, tender lesion on his left arm. A skin biopsy demonstrated a superficial and deep, interstitial-nodular infiltrate of severely atypical lymphoid cells showing plasmacytoid features, numerous mitotic figures, and frequent individual apoptotic tumor cells. The morphologic features were those of plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL). Immunohistochemical study showed that the lymphoma cells strongly expressed CD45, CD30, and KSHV/HHV8 latency-associated nuclear antigen. KSHV/HHV8 was also detected in the biopsy sections of the patient’s KS and Castleman’s disease. Epstein–Barr virus in situ hybridization was diffusely positive. In situ hybridization demonstrated κ-light chain restriction. Although KSHV/HHV8 has been individually associated with KS, Castleman’s disease, and PBL, this appears to be the first reported case in which all three entities were present simultaneously in one person, suggesting a critical role of KSHV/HHV8 as a common denominator in the pathogenesis of these diseases.