Ultrafast nonequilibrium carrier dynamics in a single graphene layer
Nonequilibrium carrier dynamics in single exfoliated graphene layers on muscovite substrates are studied by ultrafast optical pump-probe spectroscopy and compared with microscopic theory. The very high 10-fs-time resolution allows for mapping the ultrafast carrier equilibration into a quasi-Fermi distribution and the subsequent slower relaxation stages. Coulomb-mediated carrier-carrier and carrier-optical phonon scattering are essential for forming hot separate Fermi distributions of electrons and holes which cool by intraband optical phonon emission. Carrier cooling and recombination are influenced by hot phonon effects.