Understanding the twin-image problem in phase retrieval
The twin-image problem in phase retrieval is characterized by the simultaneous occurrence of features from the original object and its inversion about the origin (twin image). This problem can occur in reconstructions for which the object support is centrosymmetric or loose, and in severe cases it can greatly hinder image quality. In this paper we examine this problem and find that it arises when the retrieved Fourier-domain phase is divided into sets of regions, some of which reconstruct the object while others the twin. We examine sample reconstructions that present the twin-image problem to different extents and find that, even when the twin-image problem is not visually evident, it can exist in small regions of the retrieved Fourier phase. The reduced-support constraint approach is shown to be effective in escaping stagnation caused by the twin-image problem.