Genomic Landscape of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in Smokers and Never-Smokers
We report the results of whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing of tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples from 17 patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). We identified 3,726 point mutations and more than 90 indels in the coding sequence, with an average mutation frequency more than 10-fold higher in smokers than in never-smokers. Novel alterations in genes involved in chromatin modification and DNA repair pathways were identified, along with DACH1, CFTR, RELN, ABCB5, and HGF. Deep digital sequencing revealed diverse clonality patterns in both never-smokers and smokers. All validated EFGR and KRAS mutations were present in the founder clones, suggesting possible roles in cancer initiation. Analysis revealed 14 fusions, including ROS1 and ALK, as well as novel metabolic enzymes. Cell-cycle and JAK-STAT pathways are significantly altered in lung cancer, along with perturbations in 54 genes that are potentially targetable with currently available drugs. º Smokers with lung cancer show 10× the number of point mutations than never-smokers º Novel lung cancer genes, including DACH1, CFTR, RELN, ABCB5, and HGF were identified º Novel pathway alterations in lung cancer include cell-cycle and JAK-STAT pathways º Alterations were identified in 54 genes for which targeted drugs are available Whole-genome sequencing of 17 lung cancer patients reveals that smokers with lung cancer show 10× the number of point mutations than patients who were never smokers. Alterations were identified in 54 genes for which targeted drugs are available.