Ordered cooperative functions of PRMT1, p300, and CARM1 in transcriptional activation by p53.
Transcriptional coactivators that modify histones represent an increasingly important group of regulatory factors, although their ability to modify other factors as well precludes common assumptions that they necessarily act by histone modification. In an extension of previous studies showing a role for acetyltransferase p300/CBP in p53 function, we have used systems reconstituted with recombinant chromatin templates and (co)activators to demonstrate (1) the additional involvement of protein arginine methyltransferases PRMT1 and CARM1 in p53 function; (2) both independent and ordered cooperative functions of p300, PRMT1, and CARM1; and (3) mechanisms that involve direct interactions with p53 and, most importantly, obligatory modifications of corresponding histone substrates. ChIP analyses have confirmed the ordered accumulation of these (and other) coactivators and cognate histone modifications on the GADD45 gene following ectopic p53 expression and/or UV irradiation. These studies thus define diverse cofactor functions, as well as underlying mechanisms involving distinct histone modifications, in p53-dependent gene activation.