The frequency dependence of osmo-adaptation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
The propagation of information through signaling cascades spans a wide range of time scales, including the rapid ligand-receptor interaction and the much slower response of downstream gene expression. To determine which dynamic range dominates a response, we used periodic stimuli to measure the frequency dependence of signal transduction in the osmo-adaptation pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We applied system identification methods to infer a concise predictive model. We found that the dynamics of the osmo-adaptation response are dominated by a fast-acting negative feedback through the kinase Hog1 that does not require protein synthesis. After large osmotic shocks, an additional, much slower, negative feedback through gene expression allows cells to respond faster to future stimuli.