Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity characterization and genotoxicity evaluation of Ziziphus mistol ripe berries, exotic Argentinean fruit
Ziziphus mistol Griseb. (Rhamnaceae), popularly known as “mistol,” is widely distributed throughout Perú, Bolivia, Paraguay and Argentina. Its fruit is consumed in different forms in several Argentinean communities. The aim of this work is to quantify Z. mistol fruit macronutrients and phytochemicals as well as to determine its functional antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and toxicity after two different processes: boiling and hydroalcoholic extraction. Phytochemical recovery was variable depending on the extraction method used. All preparations showed antioxidant activity, but the ethanolic one (EME) was significantly more active than the aqueous one (AME) as hydrogen or electron donors with SC50 values between 1.45 to 6.31 Î¼g GAE/mL and 7.38 to 64.77 Î¼g GAE/mL, respectively. The aqueous extraction was significantly more active than EME on superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging. Polyphenols showed a dose–response relationship (R2 > 0.90) with antioxidant capacity in the decoction and the alcoholic beverage. The maceration showed an inhibitory effect on lipoxygenase (LOX) activity with an inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 183.80 Î¼g gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/mL but the decoction did not. On the other hand, extracts did not show any mutagenic effect. Therefore, mistol fruits consumption could be encouraged not only for its functional properties, but also because of the positive ecological impact of preserving biological diversity through the exploitation of native natural resources in a regional economy.