Improved simulation of two types of El Niño in CMIP5 models
Using the coupled general circulation models (CGCMs) participating in phases 3 and 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3 and CMIP5), simulations of the two types of El Niño event are evaluated. Previous studies using CMIP3 models pointed out that most of the models tend to simulate a single type of El Niño, and have serious problems in simulating the two types of El Niño independently. On the average, the CGCMs in CMIP5 have slightly better performance in simulating the two types of El Niño event independently with more distinct spatial patterns, compared to those in CMIP3. It is demonstrated that the precipitation response to Cold Tongue El Niño is one of the important factors in simulating the two types of El Niño independently in coupled models, and this precipitation response is closely related to the dry bias over the equatorial eastern Pacific.