Skyrmion in spinor condensates and its stability in trap potentials
A necessary condition for the existence of a skyrmion in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates with SU(2) symmetry was recently provided by two of the authors [I. F. Herbut and M. Oshikawa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 080403 (2006)], by mapping the problem to a classical particle in a potential subject to time-dependent dissipation. Here we further elaborate this approach. For two classes of models, we demonstrate the existence of the critical dissipation strength above which the skyrmion solution does not exist. Furthermore, we discuss the local stability of the skyrmion solution by considering the second-order variation. A sufficient condition for the local stability is given in terms of the ground-state energy of a one-dimensional quantum-mechanical Hamiltonian. This condition requires a minimum number of bosons, for a certain class of the trap potential. In the optimal case, the minimum number of bosons can be as small ~104.