Genotoxicity studies on the phenoxyacetates 2,4-D and 4-CPA in the Drosophila wing spot test.
The phenoxyacetates 2,4-D and 4-CPA were evaluated for genotoxicity using the Drosophila melanogaster wing spot test, which assesses for somatic mutation and recombination events. Third-instar larvae trans-heterozygous for two recessive mutations affecting the expression of wing trichomes, multiple wing hairs (mwh), and flare (flr) were treated by chronic feeding with different concentrations of the two chemicals. Feeding lasted until pupation of the surviving larvae and the genotoxic effects induced were evaluated in adults for the appearance of wing-blade cell clones with the mwh, flr, or mwh-flr phenotypes. Exposure to 2,4-D, at the highest concentration evaluated (10 mM), induced a weak but significant increase in the frequency of two of the categories of recorded spots: large single and total spots; in contrast, the 4-CPA treatments failed to induce any significant increase in the frequency of evaluated spots. When the heterozygous larvae for mwh and the multiple inverted TM3 balancer chromosome were treated with the chemicals, no increases were detected, either after the 2,4-D nor the 4-CPA treatments. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.