Foreign language listening anxiety and listening performance: Conceptualizations and causal relationships
This study used structural equation modeling to explore the possible causal relations between foreign language (English) listening anxiety and English listening performance. Three hundred participants learning English as a foreign language (FL) completed the foreign language listening anxiety scale (FLLAS) and IELTS test twice with an interval of three and a half months. Exploratory causal models indicated that the FL listening anxiety could affect FL listening performance, but FL listening performance did not appear to affect FL listening anxiety systematically. The causal relationships may be attributed to the situation-specific nature of FL listening anxiety.