Adipocytes as an Important Source of Serum S100B and Possible Roles of This Protein in Adipose Tissue.
Adipocytes contain high levels of S100B and in vitro assays indicate a modulated secretion of this protein by hormones that regulate lipolysis, such as glucagon, adrenaline, and insulin. A connection between lipolysis and S100B release has been proposed but definitive evidence is lacking. Although the biological significance of extracellular S100B from adipose tissue is still unclear, it is likely that this tissue might be an important source of serum S100B in situations related, or not, to brain damage. Current knowledge does not preclude the use of this protein in serum as a marker of brain injury or astroglial activation, but caution is recommended when discussing the significance of changes in serum levels where S100B may function as an adipokine, a neurotrophic cytokine, or an alarmin.