S-100 protein and neuron-specific enolase in cerebrospinal fluid and serum: markers of cell damage in human central nervous system.
The development of a radioimmunoassay for S-100 protein is described. This method was used in combination with a recently developed radioimmunoassay for neuron-specific enolase in cerebrospinal fluid and serum from 47 patients with cerebral infarction, transient ischemic attack, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and head injury. In cerebrospinal fluid, increased concentrations of both S-100 and neuron-specific enolase were found after large infarcts, whereas after small infarcts and transient ischemic attacks, only neuron-specific enolase increased. The increased concentrations of S-100 and/or neuron-specific enolase were noted 18 hours to 4 days after cerebral infarction and transient ischemic attacks. Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of these proteins also reflected the severity of the disease in patients with intracerebral hematoma, subarachnoid hemorrhage, or head injury. Temporal changes in serum S-100 and neuron-specific enolase concentrations reflected the clinical course in 4 patients. In stroke patients, the S-100 and neuron-specific enolase concentrations may reflect the extent of brain damage and could be useful in selecting patients with major stroke for more aggressive treatment during the acute phase.