Identification of RFLP and NBS/PK profiling markers for disease resistance loci in genetic maps of oats
Two of the domains most widely shared among R genes are the nucleotide binding site (NBS) and protein kinase (PK) domains. The present study describes and maps a number of new oat resistance gene analogues (RGAs) with two purposes in mind: (1) to identify genetic regions that contain R genes and (2) to determine whether RGAs can be used as molecular markers for qualitative loci and for QTLs affording resistance to Puccinia coronata. Such genes have been mapped in the diploid A. strigosa × A. wiestii (Asw map) and the hexaploid MN841801-1 × Noble-2 (MN map). Genomic and cDNA NBS-RGA probes from oat, barley and wheat were used to produce RFLPs and to obtain markers by motif-directed profiling based on the NBS (NBS profiling) and PK (PK profiling) domains. The efficiency of primers used in NBS/PK profiling to amplify RGA fragments was assessed by sequencing individual marker bands derived from genomic and cDNA fragments. The positions of 184 markers were identified in the Asw map, while those for 99 were identified in the MN map. Large numbers of NBS and PK profiling markers were found in clusters across different linkage groups, with the PK profiling markers more evenly distributed. The location of markers throughout the genetic maps and the composition of marker clusters indicate that NBS- and PK-based markers cover partly complementary regions of oat genomes. Markers of the different classes obtained were found associated with the two resistance loci, PcA and R-284B-2, mapped on Asw, and with five out of eight QTLs for partial resistance in the MN map. 53 RGA-RFLPs and 187 NBS/PK profiling markers were also mapped on the hexaploid map A. byzantina cv. Kanota × A. sativa cv. Ogle. Significant co-localization was seen between the RGA markers in the KO map and other markers closely linked to resistance loci, such as those for P. coronata and barley yellow dwarf virus (Bydv) that were previously mapped in other segregating populations.