The Introgression of RNAi Silencing of γ-Gliadins into Commercial Lines of Bread Wheat Changes the Mixing and Technological Properties of the Dough
In the present work the effects on dough quality by the down-regulation of Î³-gliadins in different genetic backgrounds of bread wheat were investigated. RNAi-mediated silencing of Î³-gliadins was introgressed by conventional crossing into three commercial bread wheat lines (namely âGazulâ, âPodencoâ and âArpainâ), and along with the transgenic line A1152 (cv. Bobwhite) compared with their respective wild types. The protein fractions were quantified by RP-HPLC, whereas the technological and mixing properties were assessed by SDSS test and by the Mixograph instrument. Principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out for both the wild types and the transgenic lines, showing differences in the factors affecting the technological and mixing properties of the dough as a consequence of the reduction of the Î³-gliadins. In transgenic lines, the Î±- and Ï-gliadins, and total gliadins negatively affected the dough strength and tolerance to over-mixing, whereas the L/H ratio showed the opposite effect, positively influencing the dough quality. The increase of the SDSS volume in the transgenic lines of âGazulâ, âPodencoâ and âArpainâ indicates increased gluten strength and quality respect to the wild types. SDSS volume was found to be positively influenced by the amount of glutenins, which were also increased in the transgenic lines. In addition, a positive effect was observed in the MT, PR1 and RBD in some of the transgenic lines of âPodencoâ and âArpainâ. In conclusion, the down-regulation of Î³-gliadins resulted in stronger doughs and a better tolerance to over-mixing in some transgenic lines. Although the reduction of Î³-gliadins seems not to have a direct effect on the mixing and bread-making properties, the compensatory effect on the synthesis of the other prolamins may result in stronger doughs with improved over-mixing resistance.