Entropy at the Outskirts of Galaxy Clusters as Implications for Cosmological Cosmic-Ray Acceleration
Recently, gas entropy at the outskirts of galaxy clusters attracts much attention. We propose that the entropy profiles could be used to study cosmic-ray (CR) acceleration around the clusters. If the CRs are effectively accelerated at the formation of clusters, the kinetic energy of infalling gas is consumed by the acceleration and the gas entropy should decrease. As a result, the entropy profiles become flat at the outskirts. If the acceleration is not efficient, the entropy should continue to increase outwards. By comparing model predictions with X-ray observations with Suzaku, which show flat entropy profiles, we find that the CRs have carried ~<7% of the kinetic energy of the gas away from the clusters. Moreover, the CR pressure at the outskirts can be ~<40% of the total pressure. On the other hand, if the entropy profiles are not flat at the outskirts as indicated by combined Plank and ROSAT observations, the carried energy and the CR pressure should be much smaller than the above estimations.