New Indices for Predicting Glycaemic Variability
Blood glucose variability is known to be associated with increased risk of long-term complications. Reliable indices for predicting hyperglycaemic and hypoglycaemic fluctuations are therefore needed. Glycaemic standard deviation (SD) obtained by continuous glucose monitoring correlates closely with nine previously described glycaemic variability formulas. Here, new indices predictive of glycaemic variability were developed, which can be calculated from laboratory measures based on a single blood draw. The indices included the glycated albumin (GA) to HbA1c ratio (GA/A1c ratio) and the fasting C-peptide immunoreactivity (FCPR) to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ratio (FCPR index). Predictive values of these indices were assessed in 100 adults with diabetes. GA/A1c ratio and FCPR index showed close associations with glycaemic SD in addition to the nine existing glucose variability formulas. Subjects with a GA/A1c ratio ≥2.8 and FCPR index <3.0 showed the greatest SD and longest durations of hypoglycaemia, while those with a GA/A1c ratio <2.8 and FCPR index ≥3.0 had smaller SDs and little sign of hypoglycaemia. In adults with diabetes, a high GA/A1c ratio and low FCPR index value reflect higher glycaemic excursions, irrespective of diabetes type. Simultaneous measurements of GA, HbA1c, FPG and FCPR may help to identify a group of patients who warrant closer monitoring in relation to glycaemic variability and hypoglycaemia.