Local Search Heuristics for k -Median and Facility Location Problems
We analyze local search heuristics for the metric k -median and facility location problems. We define the locality gap of a local search procedure for a minimization problem as the maximum ratio of a locally optimum solution (obtained using this procedure) to the global optimum. For k -median, we show that local search with swaps has a locality gap of 5. Furthermore, if we permit up to p facilities to be swapped simultaneously, then the locality gap is 3+2/ p . This is the first analysis of a local search for k -median that provides a bounded performance guarantee with only k medians. This also improves the previous known 4 approximation for this problem. For uncapacitated facility location, we show that local search, which permits adding, dropping, and swapping a facility, has a locality gap of 3. This improves the bound of 5 given by M. Korupolu, C. Plaxton, and R. Rajaraman [ Analysis of a Local Search Heuristic for Facility Location Problems , Technical Report 98-30, DIMACS, 1998]. We also consider a capacitated facility location problem where each facility has a capacity and we are allowed to open multiple copies of a facility. For this problem we introduce a new local search operation which opens one or more copies of a facility and drops zero or more facilities. We prove that this local search has a locality gap between 3 and 4.