Verifying Concurrent Message-Passing C Programs with Recursive Calls
We consider the model-checking problem for C programs with (1) data ranging over very large domains, (2) (recursive) procedure calls, and (3) concurrent parallel components that communicate via synchronizing actions. We model such programs using communicating pushdown systems, and reduce the reachability problem for this model to deciding the emptiness of the intersection of two context-free languages L1 and L2 . We tackle this undecidable problem using a CounterExample Guided Abstraction Refinement (CEGAR) scheme based on (1) computing over-approximations A1 and A2 of L1 and L2 , (2) checking if the intersection of A1 and A2 is non-empty, and, if the non-empty intersection represents an infeasible trace, (3) refining these over-approximations A1 and A2 . Furthermore, we present new fully automatic predicateabstraction refinement techniques to obtain communicating pushdown systems from C source code. We have implemented our techniques in the model-checker MAGIC. We report our experimental results on some non-trivial benchmarks.