Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits
Linear optics with photon counting is a prominent candidate for practical quantum computing. The protocol by Knill, Laflamme and Milburn Nature (London) 409 46 (2001)] explicitly demonstrates that efficient scalable quantum computing with single photons, linear optical elements, and projective measurements is possible. Subsequently, several improvements on this protocol have started to bridge the gap between theoretical scalability and practical implementation. The original theory and its improvements are reviewed, and a few examples of experimental two-qubit gates are given. The use of realistic components, the errors they induce in the computation, and how these errors can be corrected is discussed.