The adipocyte as an endocrine organ in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis
Over the past decade and a half it has become increasingly clear that adipose tissue is a much more complex organ than was initially considered and that its metabolic functions extend well beyond the classical actions of thermoregulation and of storage and release of fatty acids. In fact, it is now well established that adipose tissue plays a critical role in maintenance of energy homeostasis through secretion of a large number of adipokines that interact with central as well as peripheral organs such as the brain, liver, pancreas, and skeletal muscle to control diverse processes, such as food intake, energy expenditure, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, blood pressure, blood coagulation, and inflammation. While many of these adipokines are adipocyte-derived and have a variety of endocrine functions, others are produced by resident macrophages and interact in a paracrine fashion to control adipocyte metabolism. It is also abundantly clear that the dysregulation of adipokine secretion and action that occurs in obesity plays a fundamental role in the development of a variety of cardiometabolic disorders, including the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, inflammatory disorders, and vascular disorders, that ultimately lead to coronary heart disease. Described herein are the traditional as well as endocrine roles of adipose tissue in controlling energy metabolism and their dysregulation in obesity that leads to development of cardiometabolic disorders, with a focus on what is currently known regarding the characteristics and roles in both health and disease of the adipocyte-derived adipokines, adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and retinol binding protein 4, and the resident macrophage-derived adipokines, tumor necrosis factor-Î± and interleukin-6. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Central Control of Food Intake’. âº Adipose tissue structure, functions, and metabolic distinctions. âº Endocrine functions of adipokines produced by adipocytes. âº Paracrine functions of adipokines produced by non-adipocytes. âº Roles of adipose tissue in health and disease.