Use of fluorine-19 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and hydralazine for measuring dynamic changes in blood perfusion volume in tumors in mice.
One method of evaluating the mechanism of action of agents which alter tumor oxygenation is to determine their effects on tumor blood flow. This study tests applicability of a new approach using an emulsion of the inert fluorocarbon perfluorooctylbromide (PFOB) at nontoxic doses as a tracer in fluorine-19 (19F) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to evaluate dynamic changes in vascular perfusion volume in transplanted tumors. The PFOB emulsion (100% wt/vol) was injected into the tail vein in tumor-bearing C3H/He or nu/nu mice immobilized in a magnet interfaced to a spectrometer, either as a single bolus injection of 8 mL/kg body weight or in multiple injections to a total dose of 24 mL/kg. A 7-mm external surface coil was placed over the tumor. Signal from the PFOB in the tumor volume seen by the coil rapidly reached equilibrium and was maintained for at least 2 hours, and multiple doses of PFOB emulsion resulted in a linear increase in 19F signal strength. Since the 19F signal strength was directly proportional to the perfusion volume of the tumor vasculature, reduction of signal intensity should correspond directly to any reduction in volume caused by a change in the tumor blood flow. To investigate this hypothesis, the vasoactive agent hydralazine (5 mg/kg) was injected intravenously after administering the PFOB emulsion to induce changes in tumor blood supply. KHT and RIF-1 murine sarcomas, the HT29 human colon carcinoma, and the HX118 human melanoma tumors were studied. In a comparative analysis of changes in blood flow induced by hydralazine, we studied Xe-133 clearance in KHT murine sarcoma and SCCVII/Ha (SCCVII) murine squamous cell carcinoma. Hydralazine significantly reduced the 19F signal intensity in the murine tumors RIF-1 and KHT and in the HT29 human tumor, with little reduction in the SCCVII/Ha murine and HX118 human tumors. Hydralazine induced a statistically significant 64% decrease in mean clearance rate in the KHT tumor, while SCCVII/Ha tumors showed no significant change, indicating that hydralazine restricted blood flow to a greater extent in the tumor type that showed reduced 19F signal from the PFOB emulsion. These data demonstrate the potential of PFOB emulsion as a tracer in NMR spectroscopy for studying tumor vasculature.