Pharmacokinetics and tumor dynamics of the nanoparticle IT-101 from PET imaging and tumor histological measurements
IT-101, a cyclodextrin polymer-based nanoparticle containing camptothecin, is in clinical development for the treatment of cancer. Multiorgan pharmacokinetics and accumulation in tumor tissue of IT-101 is investigated by using PET. IT-101 is modified through the attachment of a 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-Tris-acetic acid ligand to bind 64Cu2+. This modification does not affect the particle size and minimally affects the surface charge of the resulting nanoparticles. PET data from 64Cu-labeled IT-101 are used to quantify the in vivo biodistribution in mice bearing Neuro2A s.c. tumors. The 64Cu-labeled IT-101 displays a biphasic plasma elimination. Approximately 8% of the injected dose is rapidly cleared as a low-molecular-weight fraction through the kidneys. The remaining material circulates in plasma with a terminal half-life of 13.3 h. Steadily increasing concentrations, up to 11% injected dose per cm3, are observed in the tumor over 24 h, higher than any other tissue at that time. A 3-compartment model is used to determine vascular permeability and nanoparticle retention in tumors, and is able to accurately represent the experimental data. The calculated tumor vascular permeability indicates that the majority of nanoparticles stay intact in circulation and do not disassemble into individual polymer strands. A key assumption to modeling the tumor dynamics is that there is a “sink” for the nanoparticles within the tumor. Histological measurements using confocal microscopy show that IT-101 localizes within tumor cells and provides the sink in the tumor for the nanoparticles.