Pontine warning syndrome: case series and review of literature.
Crescendo transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) are defined as repeated frequent short-lasting episodes of focal neurologic deficit due to cerebral ischemia. The capsular warning syndrome, a subset of crescendo TIA, consists of repetitive episodes of motor dysfunction due to ischemia in the region of internal capsule. It is not clear that patients with ischemia in the pons can have a similar clinical presentation and course. We report 11 cases presenting with crescendo TIA in the form of pure motor hemiparesis or ataxic hemiparesis that later proved to have a paramedian pontine infarct. The presumed mechanism of these infarcts is penetrating basilar artery branch occlusion at their origin, also called basilar branch disease. Copyright (c) 2010 National Stroke Association. All rights reserved.