Foliar endophytes and their interactions with host plants, with specific reference to the gymnospermae
This review discusses the nature of endophytic fungal relationships of the Gymnospermae and factors affecting their colonization frequencies within Gymnosperm foliage. The roles of fungal foliar endophytes in insect herbivory, biological control, latent pathogenesis and other associations are addressed. Specific mention is made of host and fungal diversity, ecology of endophytic colonization, and the physiology of endophytic associations. Aspects of quiescent infection, latent pathogenesis and absolute endophytism are also discussed.