Numerical modelling of impulse wave generated by fast landslides
The damage caused by impulse waves generated in water bodies by fast landslides can be very high in terms of human lives and economic losses. The complex phenomena taking place in this highly unsteady process are difficult to model because three interacting phases: air, water and soil are involved. Solutions currently available are based on either closed form equations supported experimentally or the depth integrated Navier–Stokes equations. The latter, although of more general applicability, requires knowledge of the evolution of the bathimetry and slide drag forces and their applicability may be restricted by the steep slopes existing in most real cases. To avoid these limitations, the authors propose the solution of the full Navier–Stokes equations, using indicator functions to assign the material properties to each spatial point in the domain. The method performance is illustrated by comparison against the experimental results obtained in a physical model of an actual case. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.