On the relationship between task performance and associated verbalizable knowledge
Three experiments explore the relationship between performance on a cognitive task and the explicit or reportable knowledge associated with that performance (assessed here by written post-task questionnaire). They examine how this relationship is affected by task experience, verbal instruction and concurrent verbalization. It is shown that practice significantly improves ability to control semi-complex computer-implemented systems but has no effect on the ability to answer related questions. In contrast, verbal instruction significantly improves ability to answer questions but has no effect on control performance. Verbal instruction combined with concurrent verbalization does lead to a significant improvement in control scores. Verbalization alone, however, has no effect on task performance or question answering.