The Self-Talk Scale: Development, Factor Analysis, and Validation
Researchers and theorists have argued that self-talk plays an important role in everyday behavior and self-regulation. To facilitate research on this role, we developed a new measure of self-talk for use with nonclinical adult populations. The Self-Talk Scale (STS) measures one's frequency of self-talk. Analysis indicated a factor structure consisting of Social Assessment, Self-Criticism, Self-Reinforcement, and Self-Management factors. In 5 studies, we demonstrated that the STS shows acceptable test?retest reliability and preliminary construct validity. We present implications for the use of the STS.