Sports and games for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Background Traumatic experiences evoke emotions such as fear, anxiety and distress and may encourage avoidance of similar situations in the future. For a proportion of those exposed to a traumatic event, this emotional reaction becomes uncontrollable and can develop into Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) (Breslau 2001). Most of those diagnosed with PTSD fully recover while a small proportion develop a chronic PTSD a year after the event (First 2004). Sports and games may be able to alleviate symptoms of PTSD. Objectives Objectives Primary objective: 1. To assess the effectiveness of sports, and games in alleviating and/or diminishing the symptoms of PTSD when compared to usual care or other interventions.Secondary objective: 2. To assess the effectiveness of different types of sports and games in alleviating and/or diminishing symptoms of PTSD. Search methods Search methods The Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Controlled Trials Registers (CCDAN-CTR) were searched up to June 2008.The following databases were searched up to June 2008: the Cochrane Central registry of Controlled Trials; MEDLINE; EMBASE; CINAHL; PsycINFO. Reference lists of relevant papers were searched and experts in the field were contacted to determine if other studies were available. Selection criteria Selection criteria To be included, participants had to be diagnosed with PTSD using criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM IV) and/or ICD criteria. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that considered one or more well-specified sports or games for alleviating and/or diminishing symptoms of PTSD were included.Sports, and games were defined as any organized physical activity done alone or with a group and non-physical activities such as computer games and card games done alone or with a group. Psychological interventions such as music therapy, art therapy and play therapy and behavioural therapy were excluded. Data collection and analysis Data collection and analysis Two reviewers (SL and MD) separately checked the titles and abstracts of the search results to determine which studies met the pre-determined inclusion criteria. A flow chart was used to guide the selection process. No studies met the inclusion criteria. Main results Main results The search strategy identified five papers but none of the studies met inclusion criteria. Authors' conclusions Authors' conclusions No studies met the inclusion criteria. More research is therefore required before a fair assessment can be made of the effectiveness of sports and games in alleviating symptoms of PTSD. 背景 對創傷後壓力症候群使用運動和遊戲治療創傷引起如害怕,焦慮和受挫且會鼓勵逃避未來遇到相似情況的情緒. 某些受過創傷的人情緒反應會失去控制且演變成創傷後壓力症候群(PTSD)(Breslau 2001). 大部分PTSD病患會痊癒但少部份於事發一年後發展為慢性PTSD(First 2004). 運動和遊戲可能可以減輕症狀. 目標 目標 主要目標:1.評估運動和遊戲與一般療法或其他治療相比,減輕和/或消除PTSD症狀的療效.2評估不同運動和遊戲減輕和/或消除PTSD症狀的療效. 搜尋策略 搜尋策略 搜尋Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Controlled Trials Registers (CCDANCTR, June 2008之前). 以下資料庫搜尋到June 2008:the Cochrane Central registry of Controlled Trials; MEDLINE; EMBASE; CINAHL; PsycINFO. 相關論文的參考文獻清單也經過搜尋,連絡領域專家確定是否有其他試驗. 選擇標準 選擇標準 納入受試者依照Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM IV) 和/或ICD標準診斷為PTSD,隨機對照試驗研究一或多個運動或遊戲減輕和/或消除PTSD症狀的療效. 運動或遊戲定義為任何群體或個人進行的體能活動和如電腦遊戲,紙牌遊戲的非體能活動. 心理治療如音樂,美術,遊戲和行為療法則排除. 資料收集與分析 資料收集與分析 兩位檢閱者(SL and MD)分別檢閱試驗名稱和摘要確認符合預設納入條件. 流程表規範選擇流程. 沒有試驗符合納入條件. 主要結論 主要結論 找到五篇研究但沒有符合納入條件的. 作者結論 作者結論 沒有試驗符合納入條件的試驗. 需要更多研究才能公平評估運動或遊戲減輕PTSD症狀的療效. 翻譯人 翻譯人 本摘要由成功大學附設醫院尹子真翻譯。此翻譯計畫由臺灣國家衛生研究院(National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan)統籌。 總結 總結 對創傷症候群使用運動和遊戲治療:創傷引起如害怕,無助和焦慮的強烈情緒. 許多創傷受害者克服這些強烈情緒但部分不行且情緒惡化為PTSD.我們對相關藥物和心理治療所之良多但對運動和遊戲治療則不多. 本回顧希望研究評估運動或遊戲減輕PTSD症狀的療效. 沒有試驗符合納入條件.