The various manifestations of ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma: CT imaging findings
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has a tendency to rupture spontaneously which leads to a life-threatening condition. Disruption of the tumor surface or a tear in a parasitic feeding artery can cause HCC rupture leading to hemoperitoneum. When evaluating patients with a ruptured HCC, CT can detect tumors, determine tumor extent, define the presence of tumor bleeding, and show serial hematoma density changes. Thus, familiarity with the various CT findings of ruptured HCCs is essential to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment. In this pictorial essay, the authors illustrate the usual and unusual manifestations of ruptured HCCs, as visualized by CT, and include some angiographic correlations. CT findings predictive of HCC rupture are also discussed.