Development of correlations in the dynamics of wet granular avalanches
A detailed characterization of avalanche dynamics of wet granular media in a rotating drum apparatus is presented. The results confirm the existence of the three wetness regimes observed previously: the granular, the correlated, and the viscoplastic regime. These regimes show qualitatively different dynamic behaviors that are reflected in all the investigated quantities. We discuss the effect of interstitial liquid on the characteristic angles of the material and on the avalanche size distribution. These data also reveal logarithmic aging and allow us to map out the phase diagram of the dynamic behavior as a function of liquid content and flow rate. Via quantitative measurements of the flow velocity and the granular flux during avalanches, we characterize avalanche types unique to wet media. We also explore the details of viscoplastic flow (observed at the highest liquid contents) in which there are lasting contacts during flow, leading to coherence across the entire sample. This coherence leads to a velocity independent flow depth at high rotation rates and robust pattern formation in the granular surface.