Inhibition and inactivation of cytochrome P450 2A6 and cytochrome P450 2A13 by menthofuran, β-nicotyrine and menthol
Nicotine is the primary addictive agent in tobacco products and is metabolized in humans by CYP2A6. Decreased CYP2A6 activity has been associated with decreased smoking. The extrahepatic enzyme, CYP2A13 (94% identical to CYP2A6) also catalyzes the metabolism of nicotine, but is most noted for its role in the metabolic activation of the tobacco specific lung carcinogen, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). In this study, the inhibition and potential inactivation of CYP2A6 and CYP2A13 by two tobacco constituents, 1-methyl-4-(3-pyridinyl) pyrrole (Î²-nicotyrine) and (−)-menthol were characterized and compared to the potent mechanism based inactivator of CYP2A6, menthofuran. The effect of these compounds on CYP2A6 and CYP2A13 activity was significantly different. (-)-Menthol was a more efficient inhibitor of CYP2A13 than of CYP2A6 (KI, 8.2 Î¼M and 110 Î¼M, respectively). Î²-Nicotyrine was a potent inhibitor of CYP2A13 (KI, 0.17 Î¼M). Neither menthol nor Î²-nicotyrine was an inactivator of CYP2A13. Whereas, Î²-nicotyrine was a mechanism based inactivator of CYP2A6 (KI(inact), 106 Î¼M, kinact was 0.61 min−1). Similarly, menthofuran, a potent mechanism based inactivator of CYP2A6 did not inactivate CYP2A13. Menthofuran was an inhibitor of CYPA13 (KI, 1.24 Î¼M). The inactivation of CYP2A6 by either Î²-nicotyrine or menthofuran was not due to modification of the heme and was likely due to modification of the apo-protein. These studies suggest that Î²-nicotyrine, but not menthol may influence nicotine and NNK metabolism in smokers. âº Î²-Nicotyrine, menthol and menthofuran inhibit CYP2A6 and CYP2A13 activities in a time and dose dependent manner. âº Î²-Nicotyrine and menthofuran are much more potent inhibitors of both CYP2A6 and CYP2A13 activity than menthol. âº Like menthofuran, Î²-nicotyrine is an inactivator of CYP2A6 but not CYP2A13. âº Glutathione and semicarbazide do not protect CYP2A6 form either menthofuran or Î²-nicotyrine-mediated inactivation.