Global Distribution and Epidemiologic Associations of Escherichia coli Clonal Group A, 1998–2007
Escherichia coli clonal group A (CGA) was fi rst reported in 2001 as an emerging multidrug-resistant extraintestinal pathogen. Because CGA has considerable implications for public health, we examined the trends of its global distribution, clinical associations, and temporal prevalence for the years 1998–2007. We characterized 2,210 E. coli extraintestinal clinical isolates from 32 centers on 6 continents by CGA status for comparison with trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMZ) phenotype, specimen type, inpatient/outpatient source, and adult/child host; we adjusted for clustering by center. CGA prevalence varied greatly by center and continent, was strongly associated with TMP/SMZ resistance but not with other epidemiologic variables, and exhibited no temporal prevalence trend. Our fi ndings indicate that CGA is a prominent, primarily TMP/ SMZ-resistant extraintestinal pathogen concentrated within the Western world, with considerable pathogenic versatility. The stable prevalence of CGA over time suggests full emergence by the late 1990s, followed by variable endemicity worldwide as an antimicrobial drug–resistant public health threat.