Tevatron electron lenses: Design and operation
The beam-beam effects have been the dominating sources of beam loss and lifetime limitations in the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider [ V. Shiltsev et al. Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 8 101001 (2005)]. Electron lenses were originally proposed for compensation of electromagnetic long-range and head-on beam-beam interactions of proton and antiproton beams [ V. Shiltsev et al. Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 2 071001 (1999)]. Results of successful employment of two electron lenses built and installed in the Tevatron are reported by Shiltsev et al. [ Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 244801 (2007); New J. Phys. 10 043042 (2008)] and by Zhang et al. [ X.-L. Zhang et al. Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 11 051002 (2008)]. In this paper we present design features of the Tevatron electron lenses (TELs), discuss the generation of electron beams, describe different modes of operation, and outline the technical parameters of various subsystems.