Parametrization and influence of subgridscale orography in general circulation and numerical weather prediction models
Summary The problem of representing the drag due to subgridscale orography is examined. Results from model simulations are used to illustrate clear deficiencies in the global angular momentum budgets and possible ways of correcting for these deficiencies are considered. It is argued that a formulation for the stress due to subgridscale gravity waves is required, as was first recognized by Boer et al. (1984a, b), and the impact of a scheme based on Palmer et al. (1986) is presented. The scheme is improved by using directionally-dependent subgridscale orographic variances. Results from 90-day integrations using the ECMWF and UKMO models with similar resolutions are very much in accord both with and without a wave drag parametrization scheme; showing much improved wintertime circulations.