Genetics of impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease.
Impulse control disorders (ICD) have been recognised in Parkinson's disease (PD) as adverse effects of dopamine replacement therapy, particularly with dopamine agonists. Although virtually all PD patients are treated with dopaminergic drugs, only a minority will develop hyperdopaminergic states, suggesting predisposing and/or protecting factors. The age at onset, the sex and the dose or type of dopaminergic drugs have been identified as clinical predictive factors. Recent genetic studies have investigated associations between ICD and polymorphisms of genes involved in the dopamine metabolism pathway (COMT, DAT), dopamine receptors (DRD1, DRD2, DRD3, DRD4), serotonin receptors and its transporter (HTR2A, 5HTT), and glutamate receptors (GRIN2B). Although validation in larger and independent cohorts is needed, the results from these studies give us some insights into the pathophysiology of hyperdopaminergic states and may be useful, at term, in personalising antiparkinsonian treatment in clinical practice.